The Nobel Laureates of 2014
The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards bestowed in a number of categories by Swedish and Norwegian committees in recognition of cultural and/or scientific advances. The will of the Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel established the prizes in 1895.The prizes in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace were first awarded in 1901. The related Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences was created in 1968.
The Peace Prize is awarded in Oslo, Norway, while the other prizes are awarded in Stockholm, Sweden. The Nobel Prize is widely regarded as the most prestigious award available in the fields of literature, medicine, physics, chemistry, peace, and economics.
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Nobel Prize in Physics, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, and the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences; the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institute awards the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine; the Swedish Academy grants the Nobel Prize in Literature; and the Nobel Peace Prize is awarded not by a Swedish organisation but by the Norwegian Nobel Committee.
Though the average number of laureates per prize increased substantially during the 20th century, a prize may not be shared among more than three people.
The winners of Nobel Prize 2014 in different categories are as follows :
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2014 was divided, one half awarded to John O’Keefe, the other half jointly to May-Britt Moser and Edvard I. Moser “for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain”.
The Nobel Prize in Physics 2014 was awarded jointly to Isamu Akasaki, Hiroshi Amano and Shuji Nakamura “for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources”.
The 2014 Nobel Prize in Chemistry honors three individuals for the development of superresolution fluorescence microscopy, which has made it possible to obtain optical images at the nanometer scale—well below the diffraction limit.
Eric Betzig, 51, of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute’s Janelia Farm campus in Ashburn, Va.; Stefan W. Hell, 51, of the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, in Göttingen, Germany, and the German Cancer Research Center, in Heidelberg; and William E. (W. E.) Moerner, 61, of Stanford University will share the $1.1 million prize.
The Nobel Peace Prize 2014 was awarded jointly to Kailash Satyarthi and Malala Yousafzai “for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education “.
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